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Single-piston floating Caliper Disc Brakes

Disc brake is one part of the braking system, which actually helps the car to stop. The most common type of disk brakes is a single-piston floating caliper.

The main components of disc brakes:
  1. Brake pads.
  2. Caliper with the piston.
  3. Rotor, fixed to the hub.
Single-piston floating Caliper Disc Brakes

Disc brake is very similar to bicycle brakes that have a caliper, pressing the brake pads to the wheel. But this is not the brake pads grip the wheel and the rotor, and the effect is by hydraulic rather than through cable. Friction pads and the disc causes the disc slows down.
A moving car has a certain amount of kinetic energy, and the brakes need to repay it, to stop the car. How do the brakes do it? Each time, as soon as you stop the car, the brakes convert kinetic energy into heat by friction pads and discs. Of course they are heated, and very noticeable. Therefore, most of the brake discs are made ventilated.
Ventilated brakes have blades, located between the two sides of the disc, it blows air through the disk, providing cooling.

Self-adjusting brakes
Single-piston floating Caliper Disc BrakesA single-disc brake with floating caliper is self-centering and self-regulating. Such a support can slide from side to side, moving to the center so each time, as soon as the brake starts to work. Since there is no spring that pushes the disc pads, brake pads are constantly in contact with the rotor (but rubber piston seal and any wobble in the rotor can move the pad a short distance from the rotor). This is important because the pistons in the brakes are much larger in diameter than those found in the master cylinder. If the brake pistons went into the cylinders, it would have more time to press the brake pedal in order to inject a sufficient amount of fluid in the brake cylinder to bring the brake pads in place.
Previously, cars had two, and then four piston calipers. The piston (or two) on each side of the rotor vented shoe with his hand. From this abandoned, because single-piston designs are cheaper and more reliable.

In the case of complete failure of the main braking systems in cars with disc brakes on all four wheels, handbrake operates a separate system. In most vehicles to be operated parking brake, a special cable (cable).
Some cars with disc brakes on all four wheels have a separate drum brake, built-in rear wheel hub. This drum brake is only used the emergency brake system, and is activated only by cable, it has no hydraulics. Other cars have a lever that turns the screw, or actuates the cam, which pushes the piston disc brakes.

Servicing the brakes.
The most common type of brake service - replace pads. Typically, the brake pads has a metal element - an indicator of wear.
When the friction material wears, the wear indicator communicates with the disc, uttering a sharp sound. This means that it is time to change pads. In a caliper inspection hole to see how much friction material left on the pads.

Sometimes, the brake rotor surface of damages, such as grooves of varying depths. This can happen if the shoe is worn in the car too long. Brake rotors can also warp, that is, lose their flatness. If this happens, the brakes may shudder or vibrate when you stop. Both problems can be eliminated by re-finishing (the so-called mechanical treatment) of the rotor. A quantity of material removed from both sides of the rotor in order to restore a flat and smooth surface.
You do not need a re-polish every time there is a change of shoes, but only if they are deformed or damaged. In fact, polished rotors produced more frequently than required may reduce their lifetime. Because this operation erases the material, with each successive polished brake rotors are thinner. All brake rotors have a requirement for the minimum allowable thickness.

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