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Braking System

Brake System is designed to reduce speed and / or stopping of a vehicle or machinery. It also allows you to hold the vehicle to prevent inadvertent movement during the stay.

According to its purpose and function of braking systems are divided into:
Service braking System serves to control the speed of the vehicle and stop it.
The service braking system is activated by pressing the brake pedal, which is located at the foot of the driver (except - vehicles for teaching the principles of driving, an additional group of pedals located at the foot of the instructor, and often - a model designed for use by handicapped persons, or refurbished for them .) The force is transmitted to the driver's foot brakes all four wheels.
Braking systems are also divided according to types of drives: mechanical, hydraulic, pneumatic, and hybrid. For example, in cars nowadays are mostly used hydraulic and pneumatic and on trucks combined. In order to reduce the applied force on the brake pedal is installed vacuum or pneumatic brake booster.
Replacement brake system is used to stop the vehicle in case of failure of the service braking system.
Parking brake system serves to hold the vehicle stationary on the road. It is used not only in the parking lot; it is also used to prevent the vehicle rolling back when starting on the rise.
Parking brake is actuated by a lever brake. The driver can operate a hand brake mechanisms rear or front wheels.
The auxiliary brake system serves to maintain the long-term constant speed (downhill) at the expense of engine braking, which is achieved by the cessation of fuel into the engine cylinders and exhaust pipes overlap.

Brakes, as well as the suspension system and fuel system, has come a long way in recent years and has received a lot of changes. What began in the 60s as an attempt to ensure adequate braking of the car now is absolutely phenomenal technology. The introduction of components such as carbon fiber, metal and light steel, along with the adoption of the ABS, has led to a reduction in braking distance and overall safer vehicles.

One of the first steps taken to improve braking in the early '70s, was a transfer from drum to disc brakes. Since most of the stopping power is concentrated in the vehicle front wheels, at first only the front brakes were transferred to the brake discs. Since then, many manufacturers have decided to transfer all four-wheel disc brakes on the car models in the highest class. Sometimes, the producers came back to install the drum rear brakes instead of four disk to reduce both production costs and prices for cars.
Why are disc brakes better? As far as the effectiveness of drum brakes is lower than the disk on a modern car? That's what we're going to find out in this article.

Friction and heat
Before you can appreciate the difference between drum and disc brakes, you should understand the general principles that both systems use the car at a stop: friction and heat. Using resistance or friction to turn the wheel, the car's brakes are responsible for slowing down and eventually stop producing heat as a byproduct. The speed, with which the wheel can be slowed down, depends on several factors, including the weight of the vehicle, braking force and the surface on which the vehicle slows down. It also depends heavily on how the braking system converts the movement of the wheel in the heat (by friction), and then how quickly the heat is removed from the brake system. That's where the difference between drum brakes and disc brakes becomes pronounced.

Drum brakes
Earlier cars used for the drum brake design in which the drum brake shoes located inside the brake drum on all four wheels. They were called drum brakes because the components were placed in circular drums that rotate with the wheel. For the force is used in brake fluid. Drum brake pads themselves are made of heat-resistant friction material similar to that used on the clutch discs.
This basic design was adequate in most cases, but there was one drawback. In severe braking conditions, such as downhill on a steep hill with a heavy load, drum brakes often fade and lose their effectiveness. As a rule, the effectiveness of this decline is the result of too much heat built up inside the drum. Remember that the principle of inhibition is about the transformation of kinetic energy (wheel movement) into thermal energy (heat). For this reason, drum brakes can work only as long as they can absorb heat, slowing the wheels of the car. As soon as the brake components themselves become saturated with heat, they lose the ability to stop the vehicle.

Disc brakes
Braking SystemAlthough disc brakes based on the same basic principles, during deceleration the car produce friction and heat, their design is much better than drum brakes. Disc brakes use a slim rotor (brake disc), and support in order to stop the wheel. In the caliper brake pad contains two discs, one on each side of the rotor, which is clamped to when the brake pedal is pressed. It is also used brake fluid. But, unlike drum brakes, which significantly increase the temperature inside the drum during heavy braking, the brake discs are completely exposed to airflow. This ensures constant cooling of brake discs, which greatly reduces the tendency to overheat and damage.
 

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